Canine Lymphoma: Danger Components, Signs, Analysis, and Remedy

Lymph nodes are situated all through the within and outdoors of the physique. These on the skin (indicated above) are known as peripheral lymph nodes and may be palpated. Regular lymph nodes are small bean-shaped constructions that you just often don’t really feel or barely really feel when petting your dog. The scale of lymph nodes is dependent upon the dimensions and kind of dog; normally, they need to usually be lower than ½ inch in measurement. The commonest preliminary symptom of multicentric lymphoma in dogs is agency, enlarged, non-painful lymph nodes. A lymph node affected by lymphoma will really feel like a tough, rubbery lump underneath your dog’s pores and skin.

Lymphoma accounts for 7 to 24% of all canine cancers and roughly 85% of all of the blood-based malignancies that happen, making it one of the crucial frequent cancers present in dogs. Lymphoma – additionally known as lymphosarcoma – isn’t a singular sort of most cancers however somewhat a class of systemic cancers with over 30 described sorts.

Lymphoma happens when there’s a genetic mutation or collection of mutations inside a lymphocyte that causes the cells to develop abnormally and turn into malignant, finally affecting organs and physique capabilities. Lymphocytes are the infection-fighting white blood cells of the immune system and are produced by the lymphoid stem cells within the bone marrow and lymphoid tissue within the bowel. Their position is to forestall the unfold of illness, to supply long run immunity in opposition to viruses, assist in wound therapeutic, and supply surveillance in opposition to tumors.

Lymphocytes are a part of the lymphatic system – a community of tissues and organs that assist rid the physique of poisons, waste, and different undesirable supplies. The first operate of the lymphatic system is to move lymph, a fluid containing lymphocytes, all through the physique. Sadly, cancerous lymphocytes flow into by the physique simply as the traditional lymphocytes do.

Though lymphoma can have an effect on just about any organ within the physique, it mostly turns into evident in organs that operate as a part of the immune system – the areas the place lymphocytes are present in excessive concentrations – such because the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. Swelling happens when the numbers of cancerous lymphocytes enhance; one of the crucial frequent websites of accumulation are within the lymph nodes themselves, leading to an elevated measurement of those constructions.

Canine lymphomas are related in some ways to the non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) which happen in people, although dogs are two to 5 occasions extra possible than individuals to develop lymphoma. The 2 ailments are so related that just about the identical chemotherapy protocols are used to deal with each, with related responses reported. NHL has been featured lately within the high-profile circumstances involving people who developed non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma after utilizing the weed killer glyphosate (most extremely acknowledged underneath its best-selling model title, Roundup).

Due to its similarity to the human type, canine lymphoma is without doubt one of the greatest understood and well-researched cancers in dogs. It is without doubt one of the few cancers that may have lengthy intervals of remission, even lasting years, and though uncommon, full remission has been recognized to happen.


The reason for canine lymphoma isn’t recognized. It’s suspected that the trigger could also be multifactorial. In an effort to find out what elements have an effect on the potential of growing the illness, researchers are wanting on the position of environmental elements equivalent to publicity to paints, solvents, pesticides, herbicides, and pesticides; publicity to radiation or electromagnetic fields; the affect of viruses, micro organism, and immunosuppression; and genetics and chromosomal elements (adjustments within the regular construction of chromosomes has been reported). It’s thought that dogs dwelling in industrial areas could possibly be at a better danger for growing lymphoma.


Though the direct reason behind lymphoma can’t be recognized, research have discovered that there are particular breeds which can be at larger danger of growing the illness. Probably the most generally affected breed is the Golden Retriever, equally represented by B-cell and T-cell lymphomas (see beneath).

Different breeds displaying elevated incidence embody the Airedale, Basset Hound, Beagle, Boxer, Bulldog, Bull Mastiff, Chow Chow, German Shepherd Canine, Poodle, Rottweiler, Saint Bernard, and Scottish Terrier. Dachshunds and Pomeranians have been reported as having a decreased danger of growing canine lymphoma.

Lymphoma can have an effect on dogs of any breed or age, however it usually impacts middle-aged or older dogs (with a median age of 6 to 9 years). There was no gender predisposition famous, however there are stories that spayed females might have a greater prognosis.

A latest giant scale research printed within the Journal of Inside Veterinary Medication (Quantity 32, Difficulty 6, November/December 2018) and performed by the College of Sydney College of Veterinary Science in Australia, examined veterinary data for breed, gender, and neuter standing as danger elements for growing lymphoma. A lot of breeds had been noticed to be in danger that had not been beforehand recognized as being in that class.

The research additionally demonstrated the alternative: A number of breeds beforehand documented to have an elevated danger of lymphoma failed to point out an elevated danger. Moreover, the research discovered males had a better danger general throughout breeds, as did each women and men that had been neutered or spayed. Combined breeds usually had a decreased danger compared with purebred dogs. Whereas these findings could also be inconsistent with different usually accepted danger elements, the research states, “These three elements must be thought-about when evaluating lymphoma danger and can be utilized to plan research to determine the underlying etiology of those ailments.”


Usually, a dog who will get identified with lymphoma will initially be taken to a veterinarian as a result of a number of lumps have been discovered underneath the neck, across the shoulders, or behind the knee. These lumps turn into swollen lymph nodes. Nearly all of dogs (60 to 80%) don’t present another signs and customarily really feel effectively on the time of analysis.

Superior signs depend upon the kind of lymphoma and the stage and may embody swelling/edema of the extremities and face (happens when swollen lymph nodes blocks drainage), lack of urge for food, weight reduction, lethargy, extreme thirst and urination, rashes, and different pores and skin circumstances. Respiration or digestive points could also be current if the lymph nodes within the chest or stomach are affected.

As a result of the lymphatic system aids in preventing an infection, fevers are sometimes one of many first indicators of the illness. Moreover, since lymphoma impacts and weakens the immune system, dogs could also be extra inclined to sicknesses, which may result in difficult well being points. Lymphoma itself, nevertheless, isn’t regarded as painful to dogs.

Lymphoma can happen anyplace within the physique the place lymph tissue resides and is assessed by the anatomic space affected. The 4 most typical sorts are multicentric, alimentary, mediastinal, and extranodal. Every sort has its personal set of traits that decide the scientific indicators and signs, price of development, therapy choices, and prognosis. Moreover, there are greater than 30 completely different subtypes of canine lymphoma.

Multicentric Lymphoma. That is probably the most predominant sort of lymphoma, accounting for 80 to 85% of all canine circumstances. It’s much like non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in people. The primary noticeable signal of this way is often enlargement of the lymph nodes within the dog’s neck, chest, or behind the knees, typically as much as 10 occasions their regular measurement, with the affected person not displaying another distinctive indicators of sickness.

Multicentric lymphoma tends to have a fast onset and impacts the exterior lymph nodes and immune system; involvement of the spleen, liver, and bone marrow are additionally frequent. The illness might or might not contain different organs on the time of analysis, however it will definitely tends to infiltrate different organs, inflicting dysfunction and finally resulting in organ failure.

Because it progresses, further signs together with lethargy, weak point, dehydration, inappetence, weight reduction, issue respiratory, fever, anemia, sepsis, and despair could also be noticed. This kind may metastasize into central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma in later phases, which may trigger seizures and/or paralysis.

Alimentary (Gastrointestinal) Lymphoma. That is the second most prevalent type of canine lymphoma, nevertheless it’s a lot much less frequent, accounting for under about 10% of lymphoma circumstances.

As a result of it’s within the digestive tract, it’s harder to diagnose than the multicentric type. It’s reported to be extra frequent in male dogs than females. This kind types intestinal lesions, usually ensuing within the manifestation of gastrointestinal-related indicators, together with extreme urinating or thirst, anorexia, stomach ache, vomiting, diarrhea (darkish in coloration), and weight reduction as a consequence of malabsorption and maldigestion of vitamins.

The illness impacts the small or giant gut, and it has the potential to limit or block the passage of the bowels, leading to severe and sophisticated well being dangers or fatality.

Mediastinal Lymphoma. That is the third most typical sort of canine lymphoma, however it’s nonetheless a reasonably uncommon type. Malignant lesions develop within the lymphoid tissues of a dog’s chest, primarily across the cardiothoracic area. This kind is characterised by enlargement of the mediastinal lymph nodes and/or the thymus. The thymus serves because the central organ for maturing T lymphocytes; because of this, many mediastinal lymphomas are a malignancy of T lymphocytes.

The signs of mediastinal lymphoma are typically pretty obvious, involving enlargement of the cranial mediastinal lymph nodes, thymus, or each. It may additionally trigger swelling and irregular progress of the top, neck, and entrance legs.

Canine manifesting with this illness might have respiratory issues, equivalent to issue respiratory or coughing and swelling of the entrance legs or face. Elevated thirst leading to elevated urination may happen; if it does, hypercalcemia (life-threatening metabolic dysfunction) must be examined for because it seen in 40% of dogs with mediastinal lymphoma.

Extranodal Lymphoma. That is the rarest type of canine lymphoma. “Extranodal” refers to the way it manifests in a location within the physique aside from within the lymph nodes. Organs usually affected by this kind embody eyes, kidneys, lungs, pores and skin (cutaneous lymphoma), and central nervous system; different areas that may be invaded embody the mammary tissue, liver, bones, and mouth.

Signs of extranodal lymphoma will fluctuate significantly relying on which organ is impacted; for instance, blindness can happen if the illness is within the eyes; renal failure if within the kidneys, seizures if within the central nervous system, bone fractures if within the bones, and respiratory points if within the lungs.

The commonest type of extranodal lymphoma is cutaneous (pores and skin) lymphoma, which is categorized as both epitheliotropic (malignancy of T lymphocytes) or nonepitheliotropic (malignancy of B lymphocytes.) Within the early phases, it often presents as a pores and skin rash with dry, pink, itchy bumps or solitary or generalized scaly lesions and is pretty noticeable because the situation causes discomfort.

Due to this presentation, it’s typically initially mistaken for allergy symptoms or fungal infections. Because it turns into extra extreme, the pores and skin will turn into redder, thickened, ulcerated, and may ooze fluids; giant lots or tumors can develop. Cutaneous lymphoma may have an effect on the oral cavity inflicting ulcers, lesions, and nodules on the gums, lips, and roof of the mouth (typically mistaken at first as periodontal illness or gingivitis).


Inside every of the 4 sorts described above, the illness may be categorized additional into subtypes. There are greater than 30 completely different histologic subtypes of canine lymphoma recognized; some researchers theorize that there could also be lots of of subtypes, primarily based on molecular evaluation of markers, classifications, and subtypes of lymphocytes.

In the meanwhile, additional data in regards to the numerous subtypes would most likely not lead to vital adjustments in therapy protocols. Sooner or later, focused therapies for subtypes might result in simpler remedies and improved prognosis.

The 2 major and particularly related subtypes are B-cell lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma. Roughly 60 to 80% of lymphoma circumstances are of the B-cell lymphoma subtype, which is a optimistic predictor; dogs with B-cell lymphoma have a tendency to reply positively to therapy with a better price of full remission, longer remission occasions, and elevated survival occasions. T-cell lymphoma constitutes about 10 to 40% of lymphoma circumstances and has a unfavorable predictive worth primarily based on not responding as effectively to therapy and for being at a better danger for hypercalcemia.


Early detection and therapy are important to making sure the absolute best end result for lymphoma circumstances. As a result of dogs usually really feel effectively and there are sometimes solely swollen lymph nodes (with no ache exhibited) as a symptom, catching the illness early can typically be fairly tough. Because of this, the most cancers may be fairly superior by the point a analysis is made. (Lymphoma isn’t the one the illness that creates swollen lymph nodes; this symptom doesn’t assure your dog has lymphoma.)

As a result of multicentric lymphoma accounts for almost all of circumstances, an aspirate of an enlarged peripheral lymph node is often enough to achieve a presumptive analysis of the most typical varieties of lymphomas.

Though analysis from cytology is pretty simply obtained, it doesn’t differentiate the immunophenotype (B versus T lymphocyte). Histopathologic tissue analysis (biopsy) is required with a view to determine the sort with the method of immunophenotyping.

Immunophenotyping is a molecular check often carried out by stream cytometry (a classy laser know-how that measures the quantity of DNA in most cancers cells) that classifies lymphomas by figuring out if the malignancy originates from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. Figuring out whether or not a lymphoma is B-cell or T-cell is invaluable because it offers the perfect predictive worth; the adage “B is best, T is horrible” displays this in its easiest type.

Diffuse giant B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most typical histologic subtype of lymphoma occurring in dogs. Most intermediate to excessive grade lymphomas are B-cell lymphomas – they have a tendency to reply higher and longer to chemotherapy than T-cell lymphomas; nevertheless, dogs with T-cell lymphoma have been recognized to enter remission for a number of months.

One other phenotyping check, the PCR antigen receptor rearrangement (PARR), can decide whether or not the cells are indicative of most cancers or extra according to a reactive course of. For instance, as a result of the lymph nodes within the space of the jaw are reactive, the PARR check may also help decide if most cancers is current or if the dog simply badly wants his tooth cleaned. The PARR check will also be used to detect minimal residual illness. Analysis is constant to find out if this can be a helpful scientific marker of early recurrence.

To determine the affected person’s general well being, an entire bodily examination can be carried out; further diagnostics usually embody a blood chemistry panel, urinalysis, x-rays, ultrasounds, and different types of diagnostic imaging (these exams are additionally used for staging the illness).

Particularly, you will need to display for hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia is a situation during which the hormone PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related peptide) creates harmful elevations within the blood calcium stage. This well-documented syndrome is related to lymphoma in dogs and is most frequently seen in T-cell lymphomas.

About 15% of dogs with lymphoma general can have elevated blood calcium ranges at analysis; this will increase to 40% in dogs who’ve T-cell lymphoma. The situation causes further scientific indicators together with elevated thirst and urination, and, if left untreated, could cause severe injury to the kidneys and different organs and be life-threatening.

Sadly, as a result of quickly progressive nature of lymphoma, choices concerning therapy must be made as quickly as doable after analysis. Not like most different types of most cancers, lymphoma requires pressing care; with out therapy, the median survival time is one month after analysis. Subsequently, homeowners must be ready to begin therapy on the day of analysis, or inside a day or two at most.


As soon as a analysis of lymphoma has been made, the stage (extent) of the lymphoid malignancy must be decided, and to evaluate this, a number of exams are really useful: lymph node aspirate, full blood rely, chemistry panel, urinalysis, phenotype, thoracic and chest radiographs, stomach ultrasound, and a bone marrow aspirate.

Staging is prognostically vital; normally, the extra in depth the unfold, the upper the stage, the poorer the prognosis. Nonetheless, even dogs with superior illness may be efficiently handled and expertise remission. These exams additionally present details about different circumstances that will have an effect on therapy or prognosis. The World Well being Group (WHO) five-tier staging system is the usual used to stage lymphoma in dogs:

Stage I: Single lymph node is concerned.
Stage II: A number of lymph nodes inside in the identical area are affected.
Stage III: A number of lymph nodes in a number of areas concerned.
Stage IV: Involvement of liver and/or spleen (most often lymph nodes are affected however it’s doable that no lymph nodes are concerned).
Stage V: Bone marrow or blood involvement, no matter different areas affected and/or different organs aside from liver, spleen and lymph nodes affected.

As well as, there are two classes of scientific substages. Canine are categorized with substage A if scientific indicators associated to the illness are absent, and categorized as substage B if scientific indicators associated to the illness are current (systemic indicators of sickness).


Though canine lymphoma is a fancy and difficult most cancers, it is without doubt one of the most extremely treatable cancers and most dogs reply to therapy. Actually, many dogs with lymphoma outlive animals with different ailments equivalent to kidney, coronary heart, and liver illness. Whereas lymphoma isn’t curable, the objective with therapy is to rapidly obtain remission for the longest interval doable thus giving dogs and their homeowners extra high quality time collectively. It’s important that the kind of lymphoma is recognized as the sort impacts therapy and prognosis. And since lymphoma is a really aggressive most cancers, you will need to start therapy as quickly as doable.

Since lymphoma is a systemic illness that impacts the entire physique, the best therapy can be systemic within the type of chemotherapy, which offers many dogs with extended survival occasions and glorious high quality of life, with little or no negative effects.

The precise sort of chemotherapy therapy used will fluctuate primarily based on the kind of lymphoma. Different elements to contemplate when selecting a protocol are the disease-free interval, survival time, typical length of remission, scheduling, and expense. Once more, dogs with B-cell lymphoma have a tendency to reply way more favorably to therapy than these with T-cell.

As a result of lymphoma is so frequent in dogs, there was a considerable quantity of analysis and testing of many various mixtures of chemotherapy remedies. Multiagent chemotherapy protocols are thought-about the gold normal of therapy and have proven to supply the perfect response by way of size of illness management and survival charges, as in comparison with single agent protocols.

The Madison Wisconsin Protocol, also referred to as UW-25 or CHOP, is a cocktail of medicine modeled after human lymphoma remedies and is extensively thought-about to be the best therapy for intermediate- to high-grade canine lymphomas. This protocol makes use of three cytotoxic chemotherapy medication – cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (hydroxydaunrubicin), and vincristine (model title Oncovin) – together with prednisone (CHOP). The prednisone is often given every day at residence as a pill with the rest of the protocol brokers administered by an oncology specialist.

On common, 70 to 90% of dogs handled with CHOP expertise partial or full remission. For dogs with B-cell lymphomas, 80 to 90% may be anticipated to attain remission throughout the first month. The median survival time is 12 months with 25% of sufferers nonetheless alive at two years. For T-cell lymphoma, about 70% will obtain remission with a median of six to eight months survival.

Different therapy choices embody the COP chemotherapy protocol (cyclophosphamide, Oncovin [vincristine], and prednisone), vincristine and Cytoxan; single-agent doxorubicin; and and lomustine/CCNU.  As a major therapy, single-agent doxorubicin can lead to an entire remission in as much as 75% of sufferers with median survival time of as much as eight months, although cumulative therapy with doxorubicin might lead to cardiotoxicity, so the protocol could also be contraindicated in any dog with proof of or a historical past of pre-existing coronary heart illness. Lomustine/CCNU is reported to be the best therapy for cutaneous lymphoma.


Remission is the situation during which the most cancers has regressed. Partial remission implies that the general proof of most cancers has been diminished by no less than 50%; full remission signifies that the most cancers has turn into undetectable to any available diagnostic screening (however it doesn’t imply that the lymphoma has left the dog’s physique, solely that it has been handled into dormancy).

A dog in remission is basically indistinguishable from a cancer-free dog. The lymph nodes will return to regular measurement and any sickness associated to the most cancers often resolves. Total, there may be roughly a 60 to 75% probability of attaining remission whatever the protocol chosen.

Research present that the common time for a dog to be in remission the primary time is eight to 10 months, together with the interval of chemotherapy administration. Remission standing is regularly monitored; for dogs with enlarged lymph nodes it usually entails checking the dimensions of the lymph nodes. For dogs with different varieties of lymphoma, periodic imaging could also be really useful. The Lymphoma Blood Take a look at (LBT) from Avacta Animal Well being will also be used monitor standing since LBT ranges can enhance lower than eight weeks earlier than relapse.

Sadly, remission finally relapses most often, however many dogs can restart chemotherapy with the hope of regaining remission standing. At occasions, the identical chemotherapy protocol could also be used. For dogs efficiently handled initially with the CHOP protocol, restarting CHOP on the time of the primary relapse is often really useful. About 90% of these handled with a second CHOP protocol will obtain one other full remission, nevertheless, the length is often shorter than the primary time.

If a affected person doesn’t reply to the primary CHOP protocol earlier than completion or the therapy fails in the course of the second protocol, using rescue protocols may be tried; these consist of medicine that aren’t present in the usual chemotherapy protocols and stored in reserve for later use.

Generally used rescue protocols embody LAP (L-asparaginase, lomustine/CCNU, and prednisone) and MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisone). These are much less prone to lead to full remission and a few dogs will solely obtain a partial remission, with an general response price of about 40 to 50%, and a median survival price of 1.5 to 2.5 months.

As a result of most cancers cells evolve over time, the illness can turn into proof against sure medication. Additional remedies may be given, however it could possibly turn into harder to attain remission a second or third time and there doesn’t seem like any substantial impact on survival occasions.


Listed below are some compelling options to contemplate along with the usual protocols described above:

Prednisone. That is often a element of most lymphoma therapy protocols as a result of it really destroys lymphoma cells. It may even be administered as a standalone therapy. The typical survival time with out chemotherapy is about one month however treating with prednisone alone can enhance this to about two to 3 months, with a median of 50% responding.
Tanovea-CA1 (rabacfosadine). This can be a promising new development in treating canine lymphoma. This drug has been conditionally authorised to be used by the U.S. Meals and Drug Administration (FDA), pending a full demonstration of its effectiveness (further subject research are at present happening to acquire full approval).

Tanovea-CA1 is designed to focus on and destroy malignant lymphocytes and can be utilized not solely to deal with dogs which have by no means obtained any therapy but additionally these not responding to chemotherapy. It has demonstrated a 77% general response and a 45% full response price. It’s administered by veterinarians in 5 remedies each three weeks through intravenous infusion and is proven it to be usually well-tolerated.

Bone Marrow Transplant. One of many latest approaches to treating canine lymphoma is the bone marrow transplant – a type of stem cell remedy – modeled after a technique utilized in human drugs. The method entails the dog receiving and finishing CHOP remedy (which places the most cancers in remission); the harvesting and preservation of wholesome stem cells from the affected person; the administration of radiation to destroy any remaining most cancers cells; and the returning of wholesome cells to repopulate and restore blood cells.

In people, the remedy price is about 40 to 60%; the process has been decided to be secure to be used in dogs with remedy charges of 33% for B-cell lymphomas and 15% for T-cell lymphomas. The method is pricey ($19,000 to $25,000) and requires about two weeks of hospitalization. At present there are solely two areas within the U.S. providing the process: the North Carolina State School of Veterinary Medication (in Raleigh) and Bellingham (Washington) Veterinary Essential Care.

In some unspecified time in the future lymphomas turn into proof against therapy and no additional remissions may be obtained. Ultimately the uncontrolled most cancers will infiltrate an organ (usually the bone marrow or the liver) to such an extent that the organ fails. Below these circumstances, it’s best to give attention to top quality of life for the longest doable survival time.


Like most cancers, the eventual prognosis for dogs with lymphoma isn’t very uplifting. However it’s a very treatable most cancers, and dogs stay effectively and longer with therapy. A number of prognostic elements have been recognized for estimating a dog’s response to therapy and survival time:

Canine with indicators of systemic sickness (substage B) are likely to have a worse prognosis than dogs with substage A.
Canine with lymphoma histologically categorised as being both intermediate- or high-grade are typically extremely attentive to chemotherapy, however early relapse is frequent with shorter survival occasions.
Canine with lymphoma histologically categorised as being low-grade have a decrease response price to systemic chemotherapy but expertise a optimistic survival size benefit when in comparison with intermediate- or high-grade tumors.
Canine with T-cell lymphomas have a shorter survival time compared with dogs with B-cell primarily based malignancies.
Canine with diffuse alimentary, central nervous system, or cutaneous lymphoma are likely to have shorter survival occasions when in comparison with dogs with different anatomic types of lymphoma.
Presence of hypercalcemia or anemia or a mediastinal mass are all related to a poorer prognosis.
Intestinal lymphoma has a really poor prognosis.
Expectations for circumstances with Stage V lymphoma are a lot decrease than these assigned to Phases I to IV.
Extended pre-treatment with corticosteroids is commonly a unfavorable prognostic issue.
In the end, the estimates for survival occasions depend upon the kind of lymphoma mixed with the stage and the therapy possibility chosen (if any).
Within the absence of therapy, a lot of the dogs identified with lymphoma succumb to the illness in 4 to 6 weeks.
The median survival time with a multi-agent chemotherapy protocol is 13 to 14 months.
Conventional chemotherapy leads to complete remission in roughly 60 to 90% of circumstances with a median survival time of six to 12 months.
In about 20 to 25% circumstances, dogs stay two years or longer after initiation of normal chemotherapy therapy.
Canine handled with rescue protocols have a survival price of 1.5 to 2.5 months.
Research point out that dogs who underwent splenectomy present a median survival price of 14 months.
Full remedy is uncommon, however not remarkable. Bone marrow transplants present promise and potential for elevated remedy charges.

Above all, keep in mind that prognoses are solely tips primarily based on common accumulative experiences. They’re numbers, and as a pricey buddy and veterinary oncologist has stated to me many occasions, “Deal with the dog, not the numbers.”



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